Alternatively, Slovenian grammatical gender are completely grammaticalized that will otherwise may well not convergence having physical sex

Alternatively, Slovenian grammatical gender are completely grammaticalized that will otherwise may well not convergence having physical sex

Together with the masculine suffix -ec, that has been aforementioned by the Vidovic-Muha (), the research also identifies the latest Slovenian masculine suffix -ar

The original area of the report is mostly about brand new derivation from women and you can masculine nouns to possess professions from inside the English and you will Slovenian. The analysis means that the fresh dominant kind of women nouns in the each other dialects comes to derivation through affixation, while English also features compounding. Masculinatives is uncommon in languages; they are primarily shaped in relation to professions which were usually considered area of the female areas. The latest suffix isn’t energetic but can still be found in the phrase babicar (‘male midwife’). The top difference between both dialects is that modern-day English is apparently abandoning the utilization of gender-marked versions (apart from the brand new rare feminatives you to definitely continue to be), while when you look at the Slovenian, due to the fact confirmed from the corpus studies, making use of feminatives is on the rise. The explanation for this asymmetry is actually grounded on the truth that English possess a close non-existent grammatical gender system, and usually spends an identical terms and conditions to describe a beneficial male or female employed in a specific occupation. For this reason, when it comes to women referents the aid of feminine nouns is becoming common, just like the access to male general versions is on the new refuse.

Our corpus analysis shows that the difference anywhere between male and you may women nouns to possess specialities should be found because of the examining its collocators, semantic needs, and semantic associations (Sinclair 1996 and you will Philip 2010).

Slovenian nouns denoting disciplines enjoys obvious referents pertaining to gender, as well as their modern play with – confirmed inside corpora – reveals a very clear inclination on the agreement ranging from grammatical and physical genders

The fresh new collocators from English male and you may women nouns toward checked disciplines (actress/star, policewoman/cop from inside the waitress/waiter) suggests that they show specific semantic environments: relevant procedures; metropolitan areas and you may landscaping for the profession; personal brands; words describing the grade of the things they’re doing; additionally the typical methods on the occupation. Specific certain associative definitions also are found whenever we check the brand new collocators discussing human qualities AvrupalД± kД±zlar vs.amerikan kД±zlar and look. Brand new feminatives usually co-are present which have words to have stereotypically feminine characteristics and you can identity (including sexual

connotations). It is relative to Caldas-Coulthard and you will Moonlight (2010), just who define particularly asymmetries that have stereotypes away from gender, sexualization of women, along with as we age and you may habits.

Slovenian male/women sets getting professions let you know equivalent results. Out of semantic preference, we can to see phrases linked to regular actions; normal urban centers and you may landscape; associated procedures; character traits; and appearance. Yet the corpus research along with show certain high variations. The latest sets of Slovenian masculine and you can women nouns writing on procedures would be divided in to a couple organizations. The original one to constitutes sets which might be semantically similar and you can stylistically un), because the sets from the 2nd class is actually susceptible to (a level of) semantic narrowing and you may stylistic marking.

A model towards the first group is the partners zdravnica/zdravnik (‘female/male doctor’), all of that can co-can be found which have phrases making reference to the type of work, regular actions and you can associated disciplines. The female nouns in such pairs is stylistically unmarked. An equivalent end will likely be achieved for the pairs sodnica/sodnik (‘female/men judge’) and you will vzgojiteljica/vzgojitelj (‘female/male kindergarten teacher’), however with a beneficial caveat. The type of the pair sodnica/sodnik overlap on industries out of law and you can recreation; not, the data including reflect brand new social condition of your career – the first positions (elizabeth.g., constitutional evaluator) will always be mostly kepted for males. The two vzgojiteljica/vzgojitelj can be defined as a beneficial borderline circumstances anywhere between noted and you will unmarked definition. This new corpus studies strongly recommend a degree of semantic narrowing and you can stylistic marking: the definition from “professor in the students dorm” identifies guys, because the use of adjectives (patient women and you will strict men) points to gender stereotyping.

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